Science of Procreation

The main focus of this Web site is the science and engineering of female sperm, that is, producing sperm from the cells of an adult woman. To understand how this is possible, it is first necessary to learn about how males make sperm - spermatogenesis, and how scientists are altering ways in which males make sperm. The interesting thing is that with additional alterations, females can make sperm from their cells as well.

The above review are not comprehensive, but rather assume you know a fair amount of human reproductive science. The following Web sites are general guides to the biology of sperm and eggs.

The following animations will help you understand the basic processes for making sperm (spermatogenesis) and eggs (oogenesis) in humans. Two important sub-processes are the two main forms of cellular division: mitosis and meiosis. In the animations that follow, spermatogonia are male diploid germ cells that are used in the first step of making male sperm. Creating a female diploid germ cell in a male-like condition is the first step in creating female sperm.

Some useful online texts for mitosis, meiosis, and making sperm and eggs.